PCOS is a disorder in which the ovaries produce an abnormally high quantity of androgens, which are male sex hormones in small quantities in women. The term polycystic ovary syndrome, according to Arogyadham In, refers to the ovaries’ numerous small cysts (fluid-filled sacs). However, some women with this disorder do not develop cysts, whereas others do. The release of a mature egg from an ovary is known as ovulation. It happens so that male sperm can fertilize it. If the egg fails to fertilize, it excretes during your period.

In some cases, a woman may not produce enough of the hormones required for ovulation. When there is no ovulation, the ovaries can develop many small cysts. Androgens, which are hormones, are produced by these cysts. On the other hand, androgen levels in women with PCOS frequently elevate. It can aggravate a woman’s menstrual cycle issues. Many of the symptoms associated with PCOS can also be caused by it. Arogyadham In, on the other hand, frequently treats PCOS with medication. It does not cure PCOS but can help with symptoms and prevent some health problems.

What Exactly Is PCOS?

PCOS, or polycystic ovary syndrome, is a hormonal condition that can occur during the childbearing years. It may have an impact on your ability to have a child (your doctor will call it your fertility).

It could also:

  • Stop your periods or make them unpredictable.
  • Acne and unwelcome body and facial hair
  • Increase your chances of developing other health issues, such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

On the other hand, treatments are available for the symptoms. You may also be able to get pregnant, though you may need to take fertility medications. Cysts on the ovaries are common in PCOS patients. Additionally, that is why it is referred to as “polycystic.” However, the name is deceptive because many people with PCOS do not have cysts.

What is the risk involved during PCOS?

When you have PCOS, you must visit your doctor regularly for checkups. You might be bound to have PCOS if your mom or sister has it. You may likewise be bound to have it, assuming you have insulin opposition or are stout. You are more likely to experience difficulties as a result of the following:

  • High cholesterol can cause heart disease, including high blood pressure and a heart attack.
  • Insulin opposition, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are all factors to consider.
  • Obesity
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Sadness and bipolar problems are instances of temperament issues.
  • Endometrial cancer, particularly in older women

What causes PCOS?

The precise cause remains unknown. Several factors are most likely at work. PCOS can run in families. PCOS is commonly found in sisters, mothers, and daughters. These are some of the causes:

  • Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is common in PCOS women. It means that cells in the body are immune to the effects of normal insulin levels. As a result, more insulin is made to maintain normal blood sugar levels. In addition, because of the increased insulin levels, the ovaries produce excess testosterone. 

A high level of insulin and testosterone interferes with ovulation, resulting in period problems and decreased fertility. This increased testosterone level in the blood causes excess hair growth on the body and scalp hair thinning. However, it increases insulin levels and also contributes to weight gain.

  • Luteinising Hormone (LH)

The pituitary gland, located at the bottom of the brain, produces this hormone. It stimulates ovulation and works in tandem with insulin to promote testosterone production. As a result, LH levels elevate in approximately 4 out of 10 PCOS women. A high LH level combined with high insulin levels indicates that the ovaries produce excessive testosterone.

  • Hereditary factors

PCOS is not usually passed down from parents, but it does run in some families. In some cases, a hereditary (genetic) factor appears to be involved, but this is not fully understood.

  • Weight

Obesity or being overweight is not the root cause of PCOS. On the other hand, excess fat can exacerbate insulin resistance if you are chubby or obese. It may cause the insulin level to rise even higher. High insulin levels can contribute to additional weight gain, creating a vicious cycle. Although difficult, losing weight can help break the cycle.

  • Excess androgen

The ovaries can produce many androgens when you have PCOS. But on the other hand, ovulation hampers an excess of androgen. It means that eggs aren’t produced regularly and aren’t released from the follicles where they grow. Androgen excess can also lead to hirsutism and acne.

Symptoms of PCOS

PCOS symptoms frequently appear during the first menstrual period. Additionally, symptoms may occur after you’ve had periods for a while. On the other hand, obese people typically have more severe PCOS signs and symptoms. PCOS symptoms differ. When you have at least two of these symptoms, you have PCOS.

  • Irregular periods

PCOS is commonly characterized as irregular or infrequent menstrual cycles. Periods that last several days or longer than usual are also unusual. For instance, you may have fewer than nine periods per year. And those periods can happen up to 35 days apart. As a result, you might have difficulty getting pregnant.

  • Too much androgen

Excessive facial and body hair may result from high levels of the hormone androgen. It is known as hirsutism. Severe acne and male-pattern baldness can also occur.

  • Polycystic ovaries

Perhaps your ovaries are larger. There may be a large number of follicles with immature eggs developing on the ovary’s edge. It is possible that ovaries don’t function properly.

  • Fertility problems 

Fertility issues require ovulation to become pregnant. Moreover, you might not ovulate every month, and some PCOS women do not ovulate. Therefore, PCOS is one of the most common reasons for the inability to conceive (infertility).

  • Excess hair growth (hirsutism) 

It affects more than half of all PCOS women. It primarily affects the face, lower tummy (abdomen), and chest. In other words, it is typically male-pattern hair. It does not happen to all PCOS women.

Treatment of PCOS

A variety of factors influence PCOS treatment. Your age, the severity of your symptoms, and overall health could all be factors. On the other hand, the type of treatment you receive may also determine your desire to become pregnant in the future.

If you decide to have a child, your treatment may include the following:

  • A change in diet and activity

A healthy diet and increased physical activity can help you lose weight and alleviate symptoms. They can likewise assist your body with utilizing insulin all the more productively, lower blood glucose levels, and potentially assist you with ovulating.

  • Medications to cause ovulation

Medication can help the ovaries produce eggs typically. However, these drugs are not without risks. They can increase the likelihood of having more than one child (twins or more). Moreover, they may also cause ovarian hyperstimulation. It happens when the ovaries produce an abnormally large amount of hormones. It can cause side effects like stomach bulging and pelvic torment.

If you do not intend to become pregnant, you may receive the following treatment:

  • Birth control pills

These help with menstrual cycle control, androgen reduction, and acne reduction.

  • Diabetes medication

It is frequently used to treat insulin resistance in PCOS. In addition, it can assist with lessening androgen levels, slowing hair development, and increment ovulation recurrence.

  • A change in diet and activity

A healthy diet and increased physical activity can help you lose weight and alleviate symptoms. In addition, they can assist your body with utilizing insulin all the more productively, lower blood glucose levels, and conceivably assist you with ovulating.

  • Medications to treat other symptoms

A few drugs can assist with decreasing hair development or skin inflammation.

The Final Word

PCOS can disrupt a woman’s menstrual cycle and make it difficult to conceive. High levels of male hormones can also cause unwanted symptoms such as facial and body hair growth. Lifestyle interventions, according to Arogyadham In, are the first treatments doctors recommend for PCOS, and they frequently work well.

On the other hand, weight loss can help treat PCOS symptoms and increase your chances of getting pregnant. Diet and aerobic exercise are two effective weight-loss methods. If lifestyle changes do not work, medications are an option. Birth control pills and metformin, according to Arogyadham In, can restore more regular menstrual cycles and relieve PCOS symptoms.

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